Heliosphere Protects Earth From More Than 70% of Cosmic Rays.

If cosmic rays influence the formation of low clouds this is an important finding. During a quiet Sun, the heliosphere shrinks, providing less cosmic ray protection and more clouds. During grand minimum the quiet period lasts for more than a decade, allowing the oceans to cool. Your thoughts on this new finding?

NASA post:

One year ago, on Nov. 5, 2018, NASA’s Voyager 2 became only the second spacecraft in history to leave the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by our Sun. At a distance of about 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from Earth – well beyond the orbit of Pluto – Voyager 2 had entered interstellar space, or the region between stars. Today, five new research papers in the journal Nature Astronomy describe what scientists observed during and since Voyager 2’s historic crossing.

Each paper details the findings from one of Voyager 2’s five operating science instruments: a magnetic field sensor, two instruments to detect energetic particles in different energy ranges and two instruments for studying plasma (a gas composed of charged particles). Taken together, the findings help paint a picture of this cosmic shoreline, where the environment created by our Sun ends and the vast ocean of interstellar space begins.

The Sun’s heliosphere is like a ship sailing through interstellar space. Both the heliosphere and interstellar space are filled with plasma, a gas that has had some of its atoms stripped of their electrons. The plasma inside the heliosphere is hot and sparse, while the plasma in interstellar space is colder and denser. The space between stars also contains cosmic rays, or particles accelerated by exploding stars. Voyager 1 discovered that the heliosphere protects Earth and the other planets from more than 70% of that radiation.

When Voyager 2 exited the heliosphere last year, scientists announced that its two energetic particle detectors noticed dramatic changes: The rate of heliospheric particles detected by the instruments plummeted, while the rate of cosmic rays (which typically have higher energies than the heliospheric particles) increased dramatically and remained high. The changes confirmed that the probe had entered a new region of space.

Before Voyager 1 reached the edge of the heliosphere in 2012, scientists didn’t know exactly how far this boundary was from the Sun. The two probes exited the heliosphere at different locations and also at different times in the constantly repeating, approximately 11-year solar cycle, over the course of which the Sun goes through a period of high and low activity. Scientists expected that the edge of the heliosphere, called the heliopause, can move as the Sun’s activity changes, sort of like a lung expanding and contracting with breath. This was consistent with the fact that the two probes encountered the heliopause at different distances from the Sun.

Continue reading HERE.

8 thoughts on “Heliosphere Protects Earth From More Than 70% of Cosmic Rays.

  1. fdouglasrandak November 11, 2019 / 12:54 pm

    I would be suspicious of any “space data” supplied by NASA. Their defenses of their lack of scientific accountability are preposterous, and besides: propulsion, thrust and combustion are impossible in a vacuum… their claims to having long range spacecraft are patently absurd in the face of basic physics.

  2. Todd November 14, 2019 / 8:44 am

    This is pretty funny. Someone who has no apparent knowledge of basic physics calling NASA to account.

    • Russ Steele November 14, 2019 / 8:52 pm

      Hi Todd, can you be more specific. While I value NASA’s input to science, they have been wrong in the past and could be in the future. NASA has become old and bureaucratic, slow to respond to change. More insight please to your issue with the article. Thanks.

      • Todd November 14, 2019 / 8:55 pm

        Can you give a specific example where NASA was “wrong in the past”?

        My principal objection to your statement is that “thrust is impossible in a vacuum”. What about Newton’s third law don’t you accept?

      • fdouglasrandak November 14, 2019 / 9:48 pm

        “A force is a push or a pull that acts upon an object as a results of its interaction with another object.” Newton’s Law operates in Earth’s atmosphere or in any fluid environment because air has mass, and is under atmospheric pressure. It cannot operate in a vacuum because there is nothing to be pushed or to push against: No resistance means no reaction. There is even a nice youtube video where a fellow actually attempts to get the 3rd law to operate in a vacuum chamber. Nothing happens. I know the statement is radical at first brush, but by definition, according to the laws of physics, thrust and propulsion are impossible in a vacuum. Also check out “Balls out Physics” on youtube – there is an episode on this issue.

      • Todd November 14, 2019 / 9:55 pm

        Clearly you do not understand Newton’s third Law. Sorry. Your understanding is incorrect.

  3. Todd November 14, 2019 / 8:59 pm

    Sorry – to clarify – I am reacting to one of the comments and not your article.

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