One Upping “The World’s Scariest Divergence”

Russ Steele

ZeroHedge has some scary charts showing the demand for food is rising inexorably (as is the demand for fuel) but at the same time supply is falling rapidly as the availability of arable land per capita plunges.

The result in that food prices are rising  

If the food supply is declining for an increasing population, forcing up prices during a relatively warm period, what will happen when the next grand minimum arrives?

That will be the scariest of all divergences. Increasing demand when the climate is curtailing production.

Historically grand minimums have resulted in colder and stormy weather, reducing the length of the growing season with late spring frosts and early fall frosts. The result is a shorter growing season for some areas, in other cases the historical crops cannot be grown at all.  For example,  Canada’s grain growing areas will move south with every degree decline in the global temperature as shown in the this David Archibald graphic.

In my estimate, this is the scariest of all divergences, yet our political leaders are preparing for a warming climate and are demanding that we burn critical food sources in our vehicles.  This is unsustainable  stupidity!

Cold More Dangerous Than Warming

Russ Steele

This is a reminder from a post at PJ Media by Dr Tim Ball and Tom Harris:

Far more people die due to excessive cold than due to excessive warmth. Cold weather is obviously much harder on our bodies than is warm weather. That is why people retire to Florida or Arizona, and not Alaska.

History demonstrates that warming has been good, and cooling bad, for civilization. That is why geologists named past warm periods “optimums” and cold times “dark ages.”

It was during the warmest period since the end of the last ice age, a time called the Holocene Optimum between 9,000 and 5,000 years ago, that the first civilizations flourished in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. Other warm periods, climate optimums during Minoan, Roman, and Medieval times, and of course, the modern warm period, have all resulted in increased food productivity, lower death rates, and greater all-around prosperity.

In contrast, cold periods have been very rough on societies. The Dark Ages Cold Period between about 600 and 900 AD was a time of great retreat of agriculture and depression of human activity. There were plagues and starvation in many regions and people were forced to migrate away from farms in central Europe and Scandinavia.

The Little Ice Age (LIA) from about 1350 to 1850 was even worse; there was great misery for people around the world. Alpine glaciers overran mountain villages in Europe, and cold and wet weather killed millions of farm animals and ruined crops. With famine weakening the population, more than a third of Europeans died due to bubonic plague. People resorted to making bread from tree bark, and in some parts of Europe cannibalism was common. Later in the LIA, a million people died in Ireland and a million more left the country due to the Potato Famine brought on by the cold weather. Storms ravaged coastal settlements in both Europe and across the Pacific.

The IPCC 2007 Working Group II report on “Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability” states: “A focus on key vulnerabilities is meant to help policy-makers and stakeholders assess the level of risk and design pertinent response strategies.”

They are right. But it is impossible to do this without understanding the benefits of warming, and even more importantly, the dangers of cooling. The experience of India, which has prospered while warming over the past 50 years, demonstrates how well humans, even those living in hot climates, can adapt to warming. But cooling is a killer, and — scientists are increasingly telling us — a more probable event as well.

It has been found that the Earth is warmer when the Sun is more active as indicated by sunspot count. Our planet is cooler when there are fewer sunspots. The current 11-year sunspot cycle, Cycle 24, is already showing less spots than predicted, and expectations are for lower numbers still in Cycle 25, expected to start in about ten years. Not surprisingly, global temperatures have leveled and show signs of declining. By the mid- to late 2020s, conditions comparable to the LIA are a distinct possibility. Beginning to plan for adaptation to such a cool period should be a priority for governments. Besides, if you plan for cooling and it warms, adaptation is much easier than if you plan for warming and it cools.

President Barack Obama said in his victory speech last Wednesday: “We want our children to live in an America … that isn’t threatened by the destructive power of a warming planet.”

In the real world, we must forget about vainly trying to control global climate and instead get ready for the destructive power of a cooling planet.

Global cooling coming? Solar and Surface Data Used to Predict 4.9°C fall

Russ Steele

The details are in a post by David Archibald at Jo Nova’s blog:

David Archibald, polymath, makes a bold prediction that temperatures are about to dive sharply (in the decadal sense). He took the  forgotten correlation that as solar cycles lengthen and weaken, the world gets cooler. He refined it into a predictive tool, tested it and published in 2007. His paper has been expanded on recently by Prof Solheim in Norway, who predicts a 1.5°C drop in Central Norway over the next ten years.

Our knowledge of they solar dynamo is improving, and David adds the predicted solar activity ’til 2040 to the analysis. Normal solar cycles are 11 years long, but the current one (cycle 24) is shaping up to be 17 years (unusually long), and using historical data from the US, David predicts  a 2.1°C decline over Solar Cycle 24 followed by a further 2.8°C over Solar Cycle 25. That adds up to a whopping 4.9°C fall in temperate latitudes over the next 20 years. We can only hope he’s wrong. As David says ” The center of the Corn Belt, now in Iowa, will move south to Kansas.”

He also predicts continuing drought in Africa for another 14 years, with droughts likely in South America too.

If he’s right, it’s awful and excellent at the same time. Cold hurts, but wouldn’t it be something if we understood our climate well enough to plan ahead?

You can read his full post at Jo Nova’s blog HERE.  This is important support for David Archibald’s

The Solar activity and Svalbard temperatures paper is HERE.  The abstract is below.

Abstract The long temperature series at Svalbard (Longyearbyen) show large variations,and a positive trend since its start in 1912. During this period solar activity has increased, as indicated by shorter solar cycles. The temperature at Svalbard is negatively correlated with the length of the solar cycle. The strongest negative correlation is found with lags 10F12 years.

The relations between the length of a solar cycle and the mean temperature in the following cycle, is used to model Svalbard annual mean temperature, and seasonal temperature variations. Residuals from the annual and winter models show no autocorrelations on the 5 per cent level, which indicates that no additional parameters are needed to explain the temperature variations with 95 per cent significance. These models show that 60 per cent of the annual and winter temperature variations are explained by solar activity. For the spring, summer and fall temperatures autocorrelations in the residuals exists, and additional variables may contribute to the variations.

These models can be applied as forecasting models. We predict an annual mean temperature decrease for Svalbard of 3.5±2 oC from solar cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 (2009F20) and a decrease in the winter temperature of ≈6 oC.

We need to keep a sharp eye on the length of Solar Cycle 24.

World Wide November Snow Above Average

Russ Steele

Ice Age Now has some details:

Here are some things to think about:

  • 800+ inches at California ski lodges, early 2011.
  • July 4 snow skiing on Rocky Mt. slopes in 2011.
  • 16 feet of snow in Romania this past February.
  • Extensive swaths in Eur. & Asia of 10+ feet of snow this past winter.

The question is, will we have a similar winter in 2012?  We are off to a great start. Your thoughts?



Growing Grapes During the Next Grand Minimum

Russ Steele

Reading the article below about a cold snap in New Zealand and the devastating impact on the local vineyards started me thinking about the challenge of wine grape growing during the next grand minimum.

Some Central Otago vineyards lost as much as 50% of their crop after devastating frosts hit the region over the weekend.

Temperatures plummeted to as low as -5.5 degrees Celsius in some areas, rendering frost-fighting techniques next to useless.


Gibbston Valley and Central Otago viticulturist and consultant Timbo Morrison-Deaker described the damage as “particularly ugly” and the worst he could recall. “Gibbston as a sub-region looks 40% gone and Lowburn is about 25% gone. Those are significant figures.”

The severe weekend frosts follow a disastrous Northern Hemisphere season, reportedly the worst in 50 years, and had already led to predictions of a worldwide shortage of grapes, said Mr Morrison-Deaker.

More details HERE on the damaging frost.

In an old blog I wrote about about the impact a PDO switch from a warm phase to cool phase could have on wine grapes growing in the Sierra foothills. During my research I discovered this study.

Influence of climate variability on wine regions in the western USA and on wine quality in the Napa Valley by Gregory V. Jones* and  Gregory B. Goodrich

ABSTRACT: Trends in climate variables important to winegrape production in the western United States include fewer frost days, longer growing seasons and higher spring and growing season temperatures. These trends have been related to a steady increase in wine quality and a decrease in year to year variability. While the trends in climate have been linked to increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the eastern Pacific, it is unknown whether this is caused by climate change or may be part of natural oscillations in the Pacific. In this study, fifteen climate variables important to winegrape production were analyzed for ten wine regions over the western USA. The variables were stratified by phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) both separately and then in combination (modulation effect) to determine if there are any significant differences between teleconnections. Wine Spectator vintage ratings for Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Napa Valley were also stratified in the same method and multivariate statistics were used to determine which variables are most important to wine quality. ENSO phase by itself was not found to be important to either climate variability in wine regions in the western USA or wine quality in Napa Valley, but the cold phase of the PDO was found to be associated with increased spring frosts and a shorter growing season that results in lower ratings relative to warm PDO. The combination of neutral ENSO conditions during the cold phase of the PDO was nearly always associated with low quality wine in the Napa Valley, which is a function of cold springs with increased frost risk, cool growing seasons, and ripening period rainfall (cold PDO) and above average bloom and summer rainfall (neutral ENSO). While climate trends to generally warmer growing seasons with less frost risk have occurred, this research highlights the impact of climate variability on wine quality where, should the PDO return to a multi-decadal cold phase, wine growers in the Napa Valley and across the western USA will likely experience greater variability in wine quality.

We are now in a cold phase our local vineyards have experiences some significant damage from late spring frosts and cool summers, according a discussion I had with a local Sierra Foothills wine maker recently.

I have highlighted some areas in the study that pertain to this discussion. If a cold phase PDO will have an impact on wine grapes, then a temperature decline associated with a grand minimum could have a more significant impact over a potentially longer period than a PDO switch.

Wine grapes, depending on the variety, require a range of degree days for the berries to mature with enough sugar to make great wine.  The scientist at UC Davis have developed a systems for determining the number of degree days needed by grapes in California by region.  According to Wikipedia:

The system is based on the hypothesis that grapevines do not grow if the temperature is below 50 °F (10 °C). Days in the growing region (assumed under the system to be April 1 through October 31 in the Northern Hemisphere; October 1 through April 30 in the Southern Hemisphere) are assigned degree days according to the amount that the day’s average temperature exceeds this threshold; one degree day per degree Fahrenheit over 50 °F. In places where SI units are preferred, degrees Celsius over 10 °C may be used, but should be multiplied by 1.8 to convert to Fahrenheit degree days for the following list. All days in the locale are then added up, with the sum used to determine the region’s classification as follows:
▪    2,500 degree days or less: Region I
▪    2,501–3,000 degree days: Region II
▪    3,001–3,500 degree days: Region III
▪    3,501–4,000 degree days: Region IV
▪    Greater than 4,000 degree days: Region V
The system is used officially in California, and other United States growing regions.

Most of the grapes in California are grown in Region II and Region III to take advantage of local conditions. Now suppose that the climate cools by 2º to 4º C reducing the number of days when the temperature is above 10º C, thus reducing the number of degree days.

The earth has cooled over the past 16 year and we may be on the cusp of the Next Grand Minimum. During the last Grand Minimum, it was no longer possible to grow wine grapes in England, were grapes are growing today in Southern England.

The Maunder Minimum and the Little Ice Age extended from 1400 to 1850, but it is essentially still too cold to grow wine grapes successfully in most of England.  However, in 1068 AD, 938 years before today, Britain’s tax officials reported in the Domesday Book that nearly 50 British vineyards were growing wine grapes. Romans were also reported to have grown wine grapes in Britain when they occupied the island.  German wine grapes are not grown as high on the hillsides today as during the Medieval Warm Period.

Wine grapes are one of humanity’s most accurate and sensitive indications of temperature in the pre-thermometer era. Please pay attention to how the wine grapes are growing and surviving in your neighborhood. If you have some details please share them in the comments.

This is an important paper and deserves your attention. Solar activity will be the determinate factor in the Next Grand Minimum.

Watts Up With That?

Essay/paper by Dr. Leif Svalgaard


As our civilization depends increasingly on space-borne assets and on a delicate and vulnerable earth-bound infrastructure, solar activity and its potential impact becomes of increasing importance and relevance. In his famous paper on the Maunder Minimum, Eddy (1976) introduced the notion that the Sun is a variable star on long time scales. After the recent decade of vigorous research based on cosmic ray and sunspot data as well as on geomagnetic activity, an emerging consensus reconstruction of solar wind magnetic field strength has been forged for the last century. The consensus reconstruction shows reasonable agreement among the various reconstructions of solar wind magnetic field the past ~170 years.

New magnetic indices open further possibilities for the exploitation of historic data. The solar wind is a direct result of solar magnetic activity providing an important link to the effects on the Earth’s environment. Reassessment of…

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Russians Scientists — Next Little Ice Age Near

Russians Scientist are suggesting the next Grand Minimumin this paper: Bicentennial Decrease of the Total Solar Irradiance Leads to Unbalanced Thermal Budget of the Earth
Habibullo I. Abdussamatov, Pulkovo Observatory of the RAS

Abstract Temporal changes in the power of the longwave radiation of the system Earth-atmosphere emitted to space always lag behind changes in the power of absorbed solar radiation due to slow change of its enthalpy. That is why the debit and credit parts of the average annual energy budget of the terrestrial globe with its air and water envelope are practically always in an unbalanced state.

Average annual balance of the thermal budget of the system Earth-atmosphere during long time period will reliably determine the course and value of both an energy excess accumulated by the Earth or the energy deficit in the thermal budget which, with account for data of the TSI forecast, can define and predict well in advance the direction and amplitude of the forthcoming climate changes.

From early 90s we observe bicentennial decrease in both the TSI and the portion of its energy absorbed by the Earth. The Earth as a planet will henceforward have negative balance in the energy budget which will result in the temperature drop in approximately 2014. Due to increase of albedo and decrease of the greenhouse gases atmospheric concentration the absorbed portion of solar energy and the influence of the greenhouse effect will additionally decline. The influence of the consecutive chain of feedback effects which can lead to additional drop of temperature will surpass the influence of the TSI decrease. The onset of the deep bicentennial minimum of TSI is expected in 2042±11, that of the 19th Little Ice Age in the past 7500 years – in 2055±11.

The full PDF : abduss_APR  Some interesting charts:

The question that comes to mind, is this consistent with the data collected by Livingston and Penn, with the sunspots disappearing around 2017.  It does not appear to be. Your thoughts are most welcome.

A Mayan Tale of Climate Cycles

Russ Steele

National Geographic News has an interesting discussion of how climate change resulted in the Mayan decline and inland demise.

The latest Maya climate-change study, published Friday in the journal Science, analyzes a Belizean cavern’s stalagmites—those lumpy, rocky spires on cave floors—to link climate swings to both the rise and fall of the empire.

Formed by water and minerals dripping from above, stalagmites grow quicker in rainier years, giving scientists a reliable record of historical precipitation trends. One sample used in the new study, for example, documents fluctuations as far back as 2,000 years ago.

Among the trends revealed by the Belizean stalagmites: “The early Classic Maya period was unusually wet, wetter than the previous thousand years,” according to study leader Douglas Kennett, an environmental anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University. “During this time, the population proliferated,” aided by a surge in agriculture.

During the wettest decades, from 440 to 660, cities sprouted. All the hallmarks of Maya civilization— sophisticated political systems, monumental architecture, complex religion—came into full flower during this era.

(Read about the rise and fall of the Maya in National Geographic magazine.)

Climate Shift Sparks Conflict

But the 200-year-long wet spell turned out to be an anomaly. When the climate pendulum swung back, hard times followed.

“Mayan systems were founded on those [high] rainfall patterns,” Kennett said. “They could not support themselves when patterns changed.”

The following centuries, from about 660 to 1000, were characterized by repeated and, at times extreme, drought. Agriculture declined and—not coincidentally—social conflict rose, Kennet says.

The Maya religious and political system was based on the belief that rulers were in direct communication with the gods. When these divine connections failed to produce rainfall and good harvests, tensions likely developed.

Within the scant 25 years between 750 and 775, for example, 39 embattled rulers commissioned the same number of stone monuments—evidence of “rivalry, war, and strategic alliances,” according to Kennett’s study.

But times would get even harder.

The stalagmite record suggests that between 1020 and 1100 the region suffered its longest dry spell of the last 2,000 years. With it, the study suggests, came Maya crop failure, famine, mass migration, and death.

By the time Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century, inland Maya populations had decreased by 90 percent, and urban centers had been largely abandoned. Farms had become overgrown and cities reclaimed by forest.

You can read the rest of the article HERE.

This is more evidence that climate change is cyclical, with warm and cold periods, wet and dry periods. The Sierra has experienced long periods of drought lasting 200 to 2000 years long. We are currently living in a moderate period much like the Maya from 440 to 660.  The notion that humans can control the climate is just pain foolish, a political wet dream that can be used to scare us in to paying carbon taxes.

Could Our Political Leaders Be Preparing for the Wrong Climate Change?

Russ Steele

With the arrival of Hurricane Sandy the press and members of the environmental movement are attempting to blame Sandy on global warming, or if you prefer climate change.  The press is seeking out the promoters of anthropogenic global warming and splashing their wild claims and scary quotes across magazine covers, newspaper headlines, and cable channel data crawls.  They are ignoring the credible scientists that can demonstrate there is no connection between Sandy and global warming.

Major News organizations like NBC are making claims in news reports that human caused global is creating more powerful storms, more rain, stronger hurricane and more tornados regardless of the contrary truth. They are not interested in the truth, only in keeping the environmentalist liberals and progressive off their backs by slanting the news toward the AGW agenda. In some cases the reporters themselves are strong believers in that agenda.   HERE is a link to some facts.

Al Gore is launching another 24 hour marathon “dirty energy = dirty weather ” which promises to raise the fear of climate change to a higher level in the public’s mind.  Leaks tell us that the soon to be released UN IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) will be the “scariest report ever.”

Our children are being indoctrinated in our schools, making climate change and anthropogenic warming part of the daily academic discussion.  Our children are being taught to fear global warming and the emissions of greenhouse gases, blaming their parents for destroying the planet by refusing to reduce CO2 emissions.

All of this promotional effort by environmentalist is to prompt political action, forcing the reduction of CO2 emissions, cajoling taxpayers into investing in alternative energy and to cap the use of fossil fuels, while taxing those that do use those traditional fuels. Environmentalists claim that these actions are necessary to reduce carbon emissions, which in turn will reduce global warming.

Nations following this course of action will become more vulnerable to extended cold winters, should the global warming projected by computer models fail to appear as forecast.  Alternative energy sources like wind and solar often do not preform well when the energy is needed the most during extended cold spells.  During the night solar energy is not available and wind farms often stand mute on long cold nights under the stars with no cloud cover to lock in the warmth.

Alternative energy costs more and poor families will have to struggle to pay the power and light bills, while the rich only complain about the rising costs.  Higher energy costs will have an impact on job creation and economic sustainability. Companies will seek lower cost regions with dependable power sources to keep their business competitive in global markets. These energy sources may be out side of the US. These companies will often leave behind employees that cannot find replacement jobs with a salary high enough to feed their families and pay rising energy bills.  That has been true in the UK, and Germany is now concerned that rising alternative energy prices are driving manufacturing out of the country.

All of these scare tactics, legislation and regulations to reduce CO2 emissions are focused on a forecast warming world, one where the enemy is heat, not bone chilling cold.  What if the world is really more likely to be colder rather than warmer? What if our schools, government agencies and political leaders are preparing citizen for a warming world, and it turns colder, with long snowy cold winters and shorter growing seasons. Actions that have crippled our energy infrastructures is it is not capable of providing the energy resources need to keep the nations citizens warm.   What if the global warming computer models are wrong? The evidence had demonstrated they have no skill to predict the future climate, based on CO2 emissions.

The signs are all around us that we live in cyclical world of warm and cold cycles as shown in the ice core samples from Greenland and Antarctica.  We are currently completing a warm cycle and the paleoclimate history tells us that we are on the cusp of then next cooling cycle.  We have a diminished sunspot cycle (Cycle 24), which may have peaked a year early, and is forecast to have a long slide back toward solar minimum, before it can start of the next cycle, which will be Solar Cycle 25.

According to some scientist the longer the slide back to solar cycle minimum and the start of the next cycle, the colder temperatures will be here on earth.

Not all scientists agree that fewer sunspots result in colder temperatures, however most do agree that something is happening on the sun that we have never seen before.

Here is one example of the unseen events from Livingston and Penn who are researchers at the Kitt Observatory, 40 miles south west of Tucson, Arizona, where the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope dominates the view from the mountaintop.

Author in front of Solar Telescope

In a 2010 paper Penn and Livingston presented data and a linear projection indicating between 2016 and 2020 sunspots will not be visible.   A time that is not that far way.  This paper included over 13,000 observations, which refined the declining sunspot data, broadening the window of probability for fewer if any sunspots.

How did Livingston and Penn determine the spots are going to disappear?  They used the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope that is equipped with a powerful spectrometer. Using these tools they made some long-term observations of sunspots starting in 1990, focusing on three areas.

  •  Spectroscopic changes in temperature sensitive molecular lines,
  • Changes in the strength of the magnetic fields surrounding the sunspots,
  • Changes in the sunspot umbrae, the darkest regions of a sunspot are fading.

All three measurements showed consistent trends in which the darkest parts of the sunspot umbra become warmer by about 45 degrees Kelvin per year, the strength of molecular absorption lines decreased, and the magnetic field strengths decreased by 77 Gauss per year.

These changes were determined to be independent of the normal 11-year sunspot cycle. Using the data collected from 1990 to 2005 Livingston and Penn constructed a linear extrapolation of the three trends. The linear plots suggested that some time after about 2017 very few sunspots would be visible on the sun.

The question is for how long will they disappear? Some scientist have suggested that this could be an early indicator that a Maunder Minimum is our future, when the spots disappeared for over 70 years and our ancestors lived through multiple periods of very cold and stormy weather on planet Earth.

The solar science, supported by history, is pointed to a cooler earth, rather than a warming one. For the past sixteen years the global warming has come to a stand still, even though CO2 gasses continue to accumulate in the atmosphere. If history is correct, as Solar Cycle 24 slides toward an extended minimum, we can expect global temperatures to decline. If Solar Cycle 25 is as low as some scientist forecast the cooling would continue for another 30 to 40 years. If those scientists that believe we are on the cusp of another Maunder Minimum are right, then the cooling could last for 70 to 100 years.

Our political leaders are focused on global warming, pushed by Al Gore and his AGW Cult followers to prepare for warming, when climate history and the solar scientists tells us that we are more likely to have global cooling.  This cooling will have major has an impact on our ability to feed the nation. Shorter growing seasons will limit where wheat, corn and soybeans can be grown, and in some areas still able to plant and harvest productivity will be reduced.  Vineyards will produce less and poorer quality wine, as grapes are very sensitive to climate variations. (More on grape sensitivity in future post).

President Obama recently was elected to a second term and he is planning to bypass Congress and implement new regulations to curb global warming and purge the air of industrial aerosols.   Some of those regulations include:


Tier Three Gas Regulations: Raising the price of gas at the pumps by 9 cents.
  • Water Guidance Regulation: Federal government controls any navigable waterway, but the new regulation would remove the word ‘navigable’ and put any standing water under federal government control.  This means any standing rainwater; irrigation ponds and runoff on farmlands would come under government control.
  • Farm Dust Regulation: Would regulate the amount of dust allowed from a farm field during plowing, tilling or even between growing seasons.
  • Spill Prevention and Control Counter Measure
  • Boiler MACT: Controls emissions from manufacturing boilers.  New regulations will establish standards that are below what many companies can achieve and financially remain in business.  This could potentially cost up to 800,000 jobs.
  • Greenhouse Gas Regulations: Annual cost of $400 to $500 billion.
  • Hydraulic Fracturing: Would place all hydraulic fracturing under federal control.

None of these actions bode well for citizens facing a cooling world.  The cost of energy will soar, food production will be limited and traditional foods like corn and soybeans will be turned into fuel rather than food, at a time when food production will be diminished by shorter growing seasons.

Our political leaders are preparing the nation for global warming when global cooling is a greater probability. We are preparing from the wrong climate change and the consequences could be life threatening for millions.

Watts Up With That?

From the University of Gothenburg , another head exploder for Joe Romm and company.

Carbon dioxide – our salvation from a future ice age?

Mankind’s emissions of fossil carbon and the resulting increase in temperature could prove to be our salvation from the next ice age. According to new research from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, the current increase in the extent of peatland is having the opposite effect.

“We are probably entering a new ice age right now. However, we’re not noticing it due to the effects of carbon dioxide”, says researcher Professor Lars Franzén.

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